Deployment as SCGI application

Fano Framework can be deployed as SCGI (Simple Common Gateway Interface) web application. SCGI is similar to FastCGI protocol but simpler to parse.

See Working with Application for information how to create SCGI web application.

See Fano SCGI for example application. You may want to look Scaffolding with Fano CLI to easily create new SCGI web application project.

Deploy with Fano CLI

Simplest way to setup Fano web application with web server is to deploy SCGI application with Fano CLI, run with --deploy-scgi=[domain name].

Inside Fano web application project directory, run

$ sudo fanocli

Command above, will create virtual host for Apache web server, enabled virtual host configuration, reload Apache web server configuration and add entry to domain in /etc/hosts.

To setup for nginx web server add --web-server=nginx. Without it, it is assumed Apache web server.

$ sudo fanocli --web-server=nginx

If you want to setup manually without Fano CLI, read section below.

Skip adding domain name entry in /etc/hosts

By default --deploy-* parameter will cause domain name entry is added in /etc/hosts file. You may want to setup domain name with DNS server manually or you do not want to mess up with /etc/hosts file. You can avoid it by adding --skip-etc-hosts parameter.

$ sudo fanocli --deploy-scgi=myapp.fano --skip-etc-hosts

Generate virtual host config to standard output

If you want to generate virtual host configuration without actually modifying web server configuration, you can use --stdout command line option. This option will generate virtual host configuration and print it to standard output. It is useful if you want to deploy configuration manually.

Because it will not change any web server configuration, you do not need to run it with root privilege. So following code is suffice.

$ fanocli --stdout

Change host and port

By default, Fano CLI, --deploy-scgi parameter will use and 20477 as default host and port respectively. To use different value, you can edit generated virtual host configuration file or use --host, --port parameters when using --deploy-scgi.

$ sudo fanocli --host= --port=4000

Apache with mod_proxy_scgi module

To deploy as SCGI application with mod_proxy_scgi

You need to have mod_proxy_scgi installed and loaded. This module is Apache’s built-in module, so it is very likely that you will have it with your Apache installation. You just need to make sure it is loaded.


For example, on Debian,

$ sudo a2enmod proxy_scgi
$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Create virtual host config and add ProxyPassMatch, for example

<VirtualHost *:80>
     DocumentRoot /home/example/public

     <Directory "/home/example/public">
         Options +ExecCGI
         AllowOverride FileInfo
         Require all granted

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPassMatch /(css|images|js).* !
    ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*)$ scgi://

You may need to replace scgi:// with host and port where your application is listening. If you use unix domain socket, you need to modify ProxyPassMatch as follows

ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*)$ "unix:/path/to/app.sock|scgi://"

Line |scgi:// is required so mod_proxy_scgi is called to handle request, although, host and port information are ignored.

Two ProxyPassMatch lines tell Apache to serve requests for files inside css, images, js directories directly. For other, pass requests to our application.

On Debian, save it to /etc/apache2/sites-available for example as fano-scgi.conf

Enable this site and reload Apache

$ sudo a2ensite fano-scgi.conf
$ sudo systemctl reload apache2


The difference between Debian and Fedora regarding Apache mostly about default service name (Debian uses apache2 and Fedora uses httpd), user which Apache run (Debian uses www-data user while Fedora uses apache) and default Apache configuration location.

  • Create virtual host

Apache main configuration is stored in /etc/httpd/httpd.conf. To add virtual host configuration, you can simply add entry to this file or prefered way is to create configuration in file /etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory.

In Fedora and Apache 2.4, /etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory will be search for additional configurations. So you can just create virtual host file inside this directory.

  • Reload Apache service

Tell Apache to load configuration by running

$ sudo systemctl reload httpd


Create virtual host configuration file in /etc/nginx/conf.d directory, for example

server {
    listen 80;
    root /home/example.fano/public;
    server_name example.fano;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/example.fano-error.log;
    access_log /var/log/nginx/example.fano-access.log;

    location / {
        try_files $uri @example.fano;

    location @example.fano {
        include scgi_params;

Change scgi_pass to match host and port where application is listening.

Last two location configurations tells Nginx to serve files directly if exists, otherwise pass it to our application.

Issue with firewall

Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Centos come with firewalld daemon enabled which block http and https port by default. To enable http/https traffic, first we need to get active zones. Run following command as root

# firewall-cmd --get-active-zones

In my Fedora, command above output something like below (yours may be different),

  interfaces: enp0s3

To enable http and https, run

# firewall-cmd --zone=FedoraServer --permanent --add-service=http
# firewall-cmd --zone=FedoraServer --permanent --add-service=https

Reload firewalld by running,

# firewall-cmd --reload

Permission issue with SELinux

Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Centos come with SELinux enabled and with very strict security policy by default. This may pose permission issue when running SCGI application through reverse proxy as shown in following error log,

2019/10/17 15:17:58 [crit] 1022#0: *6 connect() to failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client:, server: example.fano, request: "GET / HTTP/1.1", upstream: "scgi://", host: "example.fano"

For development, simple solution is to run SELinux with permissive mode. In permissive mode, SELinux permits all operations but log operations that would have breached in enforcing mode.

Web server such Apache or Nginx is listed in SELinux under httpd_t context. Run following command as root to add httpd_t to permissive mode.

# semanage permissive -a httpd_t

Nginx has detail information how to fix issue with SELinux. Read Centos Wiki regarding SELinux for more information.

Install semanage utility

semanage command may not be installed on your system. To find the package, run

$ yum provides semanage

On my system (your system may be different), output as follows,

Last metadata expiration check: 0:47:01 ago on Wed Oct 23 02:54:09 2019.
policycoreutils-python-utils-2.8-16.1.el8.noarch : SELinux policy core python utilities
Repo        : @System
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/sbin/semanage

policycoreutils-python-utils-2.8-16.1.el8.noarch : SELinux policy core python utilities
Repo        : BaseOS
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/sbin/semanage

Take a note of value policycoreutils-python-utils-2.8-16.1.el8.noarch and run

# yum install policycoreutils-python-utils-2.8-16.1.el8.noarch

Setup SELinux policy for custom application

For setting up proper SELinux policy please consult Writing a custom SELinux policy

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